This document provides an overview of

pregnancy, which is the reproductive process by which a new baby is conceived,
incubated, and eventually born into the world. Many aspects of pregnancy are
covered, beginning with preparation and planning and progressing to conception,
foetal development, labour and delivery, and post-partum (or post-birth). The
document goes into some detail about a normal, uncomplicated pregnancy, as well
as information about more difficult pregnancies, such as pregnancies for women
with chronic illnesses and other health complications.

Pregnancy is a unique, exciting, and

often joyful time in a woman’s life because it highlights the woman’s
incredible ability to bear children creative and nurturing abilities,
while also acting as a bridge to the future Pregnancy has some costs, but a
pregnant woman must also be a responsible woman in order to best support the
health of her future child. The developing foetus (the term used to refer to
the baby-to-be during the early stages of development) is completely reliant on
its mother’s healthy body for all of its needs.

 As a result, pregnant women must take
precautions to stay as healthy and well-nourished as possible.

Pregnant women should consider the
numerous health care and lifestyle considerations outlined in this document.

Despite our efforts to provide
relatively comprehensive pregnancy coverage,

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This document should only be regarded
as an overview. It will hopefully introduce you to some new ideas and help you
learn about aspects of pregnancy that you may not have encountered before, but
it will not contain or provide all of the information you will need to make
informed choices as you go through your own actual pregnancy. When you become
pregnant, make an appointment with your doctor. Share any pregnancy-related
questions or concerns with him or her.

During your pregnancy, your doctor

and other specialised health care providers, such as nurses and midwives, will
be some of your most important allies. They are the best people to help you through
the process and to make authoritative recommendations that will benefit your
unborn child’s development, future health, and welfare the most.

In 2012, there were approximately 213

million pregnancies, with 190 million (89 percent) occurring in the developing
world and 23 million (11 percent) occurring in the developed world. Pregnancies
occur at a rate of 133 per 1,000 women between the ages of 15 and 44.
Miscarriage occurs in 10% to 15% of all recognised pregnancies.
Pregnancy complications resulted in 230,600 maternal deaths in 2016, a
decrease from 377,000 deaths in 1990.
Bleeding, infections,
hypertensive diseases of pregnancy, obstructed labour, miscarriage, abortion,
or ectopic pregnancy are all common causes. Unplanned pregnancies account for
44% of all pregnancies worldwide. More than half (56%) of unplanned pregnancies
are aborted. Among unintended pregnancies in the United States, 60% of women
used birth control to some extent during the month of pregnancy.

A pregnancy can include multiple

gestations, such as twins or triplets. Childbirth usually occurs around 38
weeks after conception, or 40 weeks after the start of the last normal
menstrual period.

Pregnancy is divided into three
trimesters, each of which corresponds to a specific developmental stage. The
risk of spontaneous abortion (miscarriage) increases in the first trimester and
decreases in the second and third trimesters.

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The fetus’s growth and development

can be more easily monitored during the second trimester, while a foetus is generally
viable (though it may require medical intervention) in the third trimester.

Another word for gravity is gravidity
(gravid = heavy).

Multiple gestations are possible
during a pregnancy, as in the case of twins or triplets. Childbirth usually
takes place around 38 weeks after conception. For women with a four-week
menstrual cycle, this is approximately 40 weeks from the start of their last
normal menstrual period.

Human pregnancy is arbitrarily
divided into three trimester periods in many societies’ medical or legal
definitions to simplify reference to the various stages of prenatal

The risk of miscarriage is greatest
during the first trimester (natural death of embryo or fetus). The development
of the foetus is more easily monitored during the second trimester.

The beginning of the third trimester
frequently approximates the point of viability, or the fetus’s ability to
survive outside of the uterus, with or without medical assistance.

The Carnegie stages are a
standardised system of 23 stages used to provide a unified description of
vertebrate embryo developmental maturation. Instead of days of development or
the size of the conceptus, this system bases stages on the development of
structures. In humans, this staging method is only used for the first 56 days
(prior to the foetal period)

Tips for Getting Pregnant and Conceiving Faster Quickly

You’re all set to become pregnant.
Now. Waiting is the last thing you want to do when you’re ready to start a

Although Mother Nature plays a role
in the timing, there are some things you can do – or not do – to improve your
chances of becoming pregnant.

a checkup before you officially begin trying. Inquire with your doctor about
folic acid-containing prenatal vitamins, which can help protect against certain
birth defects such as spina bifida. Folic acid works during the early stages of
pregnancy, which is why it’s critical to get enough folic acid before becoming

this cycle before you start trying,” says Paula Hillard, MD, a Stanford
University professor of obstetrics and gynaecology. “If you have any
underlying medical issues, you must get them under control before you can
safely become pregnant.”

preconception checkup allows your doctor to ensure that your body is ready for
pregnancy. If possible, schedule a prenatal checkup with the health care
provider you want to care for you during your pregnancy. A preconception
checkup can be scheduled at any time, even up to a year before you want to
become pregnant.

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counselling (also known as pre-conceptual counselling) is a visit by a woman to
a health-care professional (usually a physician or midwife) before attempting
to become pregnant. It typically includes a pre-conception risk assessment for
any potential pregnancy complications, as well as risk factor modifications
such as increasing folic acid intake to reduce the risk of neural tube defects
and counselling on smoking cessation, alcohol reduction, and medications that
may impair foetal development. Physicians,

and baby experts recommend that a woman visit them as soon as she considers
having a child, and ideally 3 to 6 months before actual attempts to
conceive. This time period enables a woman to better prepare her body for
successful conception (fertilisation) and pregnancy, as well as to reduce any
health risks that are within her control. The March of Dimes and other
organisations have created screening tools that healthcare providers can use
with their patients. Furthermore, obstetricians or midwives (see Obstetrics,
Midwifery, General Practitioner) have created comprehensive check-lists and
assessments for pregnant women.

some ways, pre-conception counselling and assessment are similar to well-baby
visits, where a baby is screened for normal health and development, with the
added benefit of identifying emerging problems that may have gone unnoticed in
an infant. The Pre-Conception Counseling Assessment and Screening for Women is
intended to assess a woman’s normal health as a child-bearing woman.


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